Amnesty International says US could be guilty of war crimes over use of drones

BRONZEYE COMMENT: whereas we fully support accountability and responsibility for actions… terrorists do need to know that they have no place to hide. Secrecy is necessary when tracking terrorists that are willing to murder and maim innocent civilians, otherwise, they are very difficult to catch. COMMENT ENDS

Amnesty International says US could be guilty of war crimes over use of drones
Amnesty International says US may be guilty of war crimes over its use of drone strikes after finding evidence of civilian deaths

By Rob Crilly, Islamabad5:00AM BST 22 Oct 2013 The Telegraph
Human rights campaigners will today demand that American officials be held responsible for illegal killings carried out by drones and call for greater transparency over its secret programme.
A new report by Amnesty International details how civilians have been killed in Pakistan – including a 68-year-old grandmother who died in her family’s fields – and warns the US that some deaths may amount to war crimes.
It comes amid intense scrutiny of the CIA’s covert drone programme.
Nawaz Sharif, the Pakistani prime minister, is in Washington where he is expected to raise the issue of drones with Barack Obama days before a United Nations debate on the subject.
The strikes are intensely controversial in Pakistan, where they are frequently blamed for killing civilians and driving young men to terrorism.

In its report, Amnesty also asked the UK not to share intelligence, facilities or specialist components that might be used in strikes.
Mustafa Qadri, the report’s author, said: “Secrecy surrounding the drones programme gives the US administration a license to kill beyond the reach of the courts or basic standards of international law. It’s time for the USA to come clean about the drones programme and hold those responsible for these violations to account,” he said.
“What hope for redress can there be for victims of drone attacks and their families when the USA won’t even acknowledge its responsibility for particular strikes?”
Amnesty reviewed all 45 known drone strikes that took place in North Waziristan in north-western Pakistan between January 2012 and August this year. Contrary to official claims that those killed were “terrorists”, campaigners concluded that in a number of cases the victims were not involved in armed activity and posed no threat to life.
In July last year, researchers found that 18 labourers, including a 14-year-old boy, were killed in multiple strikes on a village close to the border with Afghanistan as they were about to eat an evening meal at the end of work.
In October 2012, Mamana Bibi was killed in a double strike – apparently by a Hellfire missile – as she picked vegetables in the family’s fields while surrounded by her grandchildren.
In a report published last week, the UN’s special rapporteur on human rights and counter-terrorism , found that 400 civilians had been killed in Pakistan’s tribal areas – more than the US had ever publicly confirmed.
However, Ben Emmerson also said that unmanned aerial vehicles could reduce the risk of civilian casualties if used in accordance with international humanitarian law.

Terrorists among us: Militant’s wife behind Volgograd suicide blast

BRONZEYE COMMENT: follow-up reporting to Monday’s (20 Oct 13) suicide attack in Volgograd, Russia. The fact that she detonated almost immediately after walking on the bus may suggest that she was remotely detonated. COMMENT ENDS.

Terrorists among us: Militant’s wife behind Volgograd suicide blast

RT Published time: October 21, 2013 22:31

Dmitry Sokolov (L) and Naida Asiyalova

The 30-year-old female suicide bomber responsible for the deadly blast in Volgograd, central Russia, was a Dagestani national and allegedly the wife of a militant. She reportedly converted her husband to radical Islam to join the Dagestan rebels.

Naida Asiyalova, also known as ‘Amaturahman,’ blew herself up on a bus at around 2:05 p.m. Moscow time (10:05 GMT) on Monday, killing six people and injuring 37 – including a 20-month-old child.

The bomb detonated “almost immediately” after she entered the bus, which was heading away from the heart of the city, Investigative Committee spokesman Vladimir Markin said.

According to Dagestan security sources, Asiyalova was the alleged wife of Dmitry Sokolov – a militant in Makhachkala.

The couple and two other militants, Ruslan Kazanbiyev and Kurban Omarov, both 25, conspired to carry out a terrorist attack in the Russian capital. However, for some reason, the woman detonated her explosive device in Volgograd.

Asiyalova and Sokolov reportedly studied together at a Moscow university, where she recruited him to radical Islam. They later left the capital to join rebel groups in the southern Russian republic of Dagestan.

The fact that a young man from the Moscow suburbs was recruited by rebels indicates the rapid expansion of the social base of terrorism, Artur Ataev, senior researcher at the Russian Institute of Strategic Research, told RT.

Sokolov was reported missing in July 2012 after he failed to return home from Arabic language courses that he attended at one of the capital’s mosques, according to Liza Alert, the search team that tried to locate him two years ago.

Sokolov, 21, is wanted in Dagestan for taking part in two terrorist explosions in which at least 29 people were injured. Sokolov is also known as ‘Abdul Jabbar.’

An unconfirmed report cited by Russian media said that Asiyalova had a serious disease which caused her to take tranquilizers and painkillers. A fundraiser was previously organized on social network VKontakte for her treatment. It stated that she had a disease which caused her jawbone to recede.

Asiyalova constantly changed her place of residence. She was reportedly staying for some time in the Dagestani capital of Makhachkala and other Dagestani cities, where she met with the widows and wives of militants. Because of her ardent commitment to radical Islam, she was very popular and had access to money collected to support the so-called “Jamias” – Muslim gatherings aimed at preaching Islam.

The spread of politically motivated terrorism in Russia
The Monday terrorist attack in Volgograd fits into the overall picture of the terrorist policy pursued by the Caucasus Emirate – a terrorist organization based in southern Russia’s Caucasus region and associated with Al-Qaeda, Ataev told RT.

Anti-terrorism operations in the North Caucasus region have forced separatist groups to go into hiding, Ataev added. While major groups estimating from 400 to 500 people – like the ones in the mid-90s – have disappeared, new kinds of groups consisting of 3 to 4 people have come into being, he noted.

“Parts of the militant groups are moving northward. This fact is confirmed by the so-called “Jamias” – the activities of which security forces have recently been disclosing in the Moscow suburbs,” Ataev added.

According to Ataev, we are witnessing fundamental changes. There used to be national terrorism which concentrated on the separatist part of the Russian Federation on the territory of an independent Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. However, this has now transformed into a religious terrorism carried out by rebels, he noted.

“Now we are witnessing an attempt to organize the so-called social or politically motivated terrorism, which has already taken place in the history of Russia in the 19th century, one of the reasons of the fall of the Great Russian Empire.”

Despite all the efforts to develop a preventive map of terror threats, it is an extremely hard and “lowly craft,” Ataev said.

“Definitely it can and should be said that the terror resistance is driven into the underground. But there is a potential, unfortunately, for its growth, because it has a too strong ideology of Wahhabism and radicalism. Its roots are too large not only in the Russian Caucasus, but also in Moscow, and in the Stavropol Region.”

In one of his latest addresses, Russia’s most-wanted terrorist Doku Umarov claimed that jihad would be waged in every region and country where even a single “real Muslim” lives, Ataev reminded, adding that the expansion of a “social base” for terrorism is a worrying and dangerous sign.

“Today we don’t know terrorists by sight, neither the law enforcements nor the community and the civil society which, in principle, also according to the concept of struggle against terrorism approved in Russia, must carry out preventive anti-terror measures as well.”

Public transport terror acts in Russia
Over the last decade, almost 300 people have been killed in terror attacks targeting public transport in Russia. Most of those were carried out by suicide bombers.

September 2003: Two explosions in a passenger train in Stavropol region kill seven and injure 80.

December 2003: A suicide bomber blows herself up in a train arriving to Yessentuki, Stavropol Region, killing 44 people and injuring 156 others.

February 2004: A suicide bomb blast in the Moscow metro kills 42 people and injures 250 others. The train was traveling from Avtozavodskaya station to Paveletskaya station.

August 2004: Two suicide bombers trigger explosive devices in Russian passenger planes Tu-154 and Tu-134, causing them to crash. Ninety people are killed in the terror acts. Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev claims personal responsibility.

August 2004: A suicide bomb blast kills 10 people and injures 90 others near the Moscow underground’s Rizhskaya station.

August 2007: A rail track explosion causes the Nevsky Express to crash. The train was en route from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Sixty people are injured.

October 2007: A bus explosion kills eight and injures over 60 others in the city of Tolyatti, Samara Oblast.

November 2008: A suicide bomber blows herself up near a passenger shuttle bus in Vladikavkaz, killing 12 people and injuring 41 others.

November 2009: A terrorist blast causes the Nesky Express to crash for a second time. Twenty-eight people are killed and 95 others injured.

March 2010: Forty-one people are killed and 85 others injured in two suicide bomb blasts in Moscow metro stations Park Kultury and Lubyanka. Chechen Islamist militant boss Doku Umarov claims responsibility for the terror acts.

How millions of violent Muslim deaths feed the cycle of terrorism

BRONZEYE COMMENT: some interesting background reading but wildly biased. Strangely, it includes all the major conflicts since 1980 but does not highlight the many times (still ongoing) when Muslim extremists killed Muslim civilians and/or security forces. But one can see how it can be evocative when used in the right circumstances. COMMENT ENDS

How millions of violent Muslim deaths feed the cycle of terrorism

Who’s to blame for millions of Muslim deaths?

At least 4 million Muslims have lost their lives in violence in the Middle East and elsewhere over the last three decades – conflicts that many believers in Islam blame on “infidel” governments. But what about Muslim on Muslim violence, which has been more prevalent in recent years? NBC’s Richard Engel examines the complex issue.

The West, especially the United States, is waging a campaign of genocide and oppression against Muslims aimed at wiping Islam’s followers off the map — at least that’s how radical Islamists see it.

That propaganda message – publicized and parroted by Islamic militants the world over – has reverberated with deadly results this year in Boston, London and Nairobi. And underscored by continuing conflicts in Egypt, Syria, Africa and elsewhere, it is gaining traction among mainstream Muslims and even forcing the White House to consider its impact when setting foreign policy.
Why? Because of this fact, according to Ed Husain, senior fellow for Middle Eastern Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations: Muslims have been dying violently in staggering numbers over the past three decades in conflicts around the world, many of them instigated by non-Muslim nations.
“The ugly truth is that it is real,” he said. “You can’t go past a single month in the past 30 years without reports of Muslims being killed in some part of the world or another, and that sticks.”
An NBC News analysis of data from a variety of sources indicates that more than 4 million Muslims have died in conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Bosnia, Chechnya and elsewhere since 1980. The data, which is imprecise, politically charged and often unverifiable, comes from human rights organizations, academic studies, the U.N. and from groups representing the victims.
Many terrorism experts and Islamic scholars caution that the notion that the West is orchestrating “a genocide” is a gross oversimplification.

“Beginning with the Iran-Iraq War and continuing to the present day, more and more casualties are inflicted by Muslims against Muslims,” said P.J. Crowley, a former spokesman for ex-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and now a professor at George Washington University. “The prevailing narrative in the region remains the faithful waging war against crusaders, but that is not the reality.”
The data offers some support for this view, with roughly half of the deaths in the NBC analysis attributable to internecine conflict, a trend that has increased in recent years.
Nonetheless, the perception that non-Muslim global powers are targeting Islam has become so widely accepted in the Arab world and beyond that it is now a consideration in U.S. foreign policy. Steve Simon, who was until earlier this year head of the Middle East Desk at the National Security Council, said it became part of the debate over drone strikes and the timetable for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq.
“Over time, my impression was that administration became increasingly aware of the reputational costs of the drone attacks, weighing them against their considerable tactical gains,” said Simon. “There was a concern that over the course of the decade too many people were getting killed.”
Likewise, the spiraling death toll played into decisions to speed the pullout from Iraq, he said.
“The sanctions, which the U.S. led, took a heavy toll, then (came) the war,” he said. “We also were aware that our involvement had unleashed internecine warfare that … killed many more.”
Experts say the propaganda campaign also is helping embattled terrorist groups like al Qaeda expand their reach by feeding resentment and anger against the “infidels” – be they Christian, Jew, Hindu or Communist – to inspire new attacks.
This year alone, attackers have used such language to terrorist justify attacks in London and Boston and September’s al Shabaab assault on a mall in Nairobi, Kenya, which killed at least 67 people.
Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokar Tsarnaev expressed it in a scribbled note he left in the Watertown, Mass., boat where he was captured, accusing the U.S. government of “killing our innocent civilians.”
“I don’t like killing innocent people,” he wrote, according to the Associated Press, “(but) I can’t stand to see such evil go unpunished. … We Muslims are one body, you hurt one you hurt us all.”
The underlying notion is even finding its way into the mainstream Muslim discourse. When Egypt’s Nobel Peace Prize winner Mohammed El-Baradei told the Council on Foreign Relations in 2010 that 1 million Iraqis had died as a result of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, for example, he was merely repeating a figure commonly heard on the Arab street. Most academic research puts the number far lower – between 150,000 and 200,000 – as a direct result of the conflict.

Clearly, though, the U.S. and other non-Muslim nations have contributed to the perception through acts of aggression.
The Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan killed as many as 2.1 million Afghans, including 13.5 percent of the male population, according to U.N. estimates. The U.S.-led wars against Saddam Hussein took a brutal toll on the Iraqi population. Russia killed tens of thousands in Chechnya. Serbian and Croatian forces killed or starved to death hundreds of thousands in Bosnia and Kosovo. Indian forces have killed Muslims in Kashmir.
Many of those killed were civilians, often women and children. Norwegian terrorism researcher Thomas Hegghammer has found that al Qaeda’s most effective recruiting tool is video of women and children killed in such conflicts – footage that is widely available on the Internet.

Just as notable – and deadly – though, are the internecine wars, like the Iran-Iraq War, sectarian and political violence in places like Algeria or Sudan or Tajikistan and Saddam’s murderous campaign against the Shiites and Kurds in Iraq.
But the loss of Muslim lives in Iraq in multiple conflicts illustrates how, in the narrative put forward by radical Islamists, the hand of the West can be seen even in violence pitting Muslim against Muslim.
In the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), for example, the two Muslim nations – one led by Shiites, the other, Sunnis – battled to a deadlock, leaving hundreds of thousands dead on each side. But many Muslims say the conflict was pushed along by Western nations who armed both nations and wanted to see both bloodied.
“Local circumstances, local conflicts, local dynamics are ignored for a convenient explanation,” said Husain, the Council on Foreign Relations expert. “Even if it’s Muslim on Muslim, it’s still portrayed as they’re both fighting for external players.”
Haroon Moghul, a fellow at Fordham University’s Center on National Security, said the years it took for the West – in the form of NATO – to intervene in Bosnia and the failure to act in Chechnya to halt “ethnic cleansing” in both countries may have had an even greater impact on the Muslim psyche.
“Over the last 30 years, the overwhelming proportion of violence in Europe has been against Muslims. Srbrenica was the biggest atrocity in Europe since World War II,” he said, referring to the massacre of more than 8,000 Bosnian Muslims by Serb forces in July 1995. “The (Russian) air war on Chechnya was the biggest assault since World War II.”
To this day, many Muslims believe the U.S. and the West tried to stop genocide in Bosnia too late, and then only stepped in when the Muslim fighters were on the verge of a military victory, he said.
Simon, the former NSC official, said that argument fails to recognize that the intervention resulted in the creation of two Muslim states in Bosnia and Kosovo.
“The Muslim narrative is not to give the West any credit for that,” he said. “The West – it’s said – didn’t intervene out of a moral imperative, but out of self-interest. When the U.S. motives are perceived to be illegitimate, it’s seen to be in the wrong even it does the right thing.”

Two things must happen for that storyline to change, said Moghul, the Fordham University fellow.
First, he said, the world’s Muslims must develop the ability to see through the one-sided portrayal of the West.
“It produces the refusal to take ownership of anything,” he said. “If everything is a puppet, not only don’t you take responsibility, you can’t! Therefore, there is no actual grievance. ‘It’s a Western plot’.”
But the West also must gain a better understanding of what is going on in the wide belt from North Africa to the East Indies – the human suffering, its scale and the perception of those who are its victims – and become a positive force for change, he said.
“Although everyone is affected by this, the only ones who propose to do anything about it is the extremist groups … and their solution is violence,” he said. “There is a huge vacuum of leadership that is coupled with a feeling of pessimism and marginalization.”

Russia bus blast caused by bomb, anti-terrorism agency says

Russia bus blast caused by bomb, anti-terrorism agency says

No immediate information about who might have carried out the bombing or why

The Associated Press

Posted:Oct 21, 2013 7:46 AM ET
Last Updated:Oct 21, 2013 7:59 AM ET

A bomb blast rocked a passenger bus in the southern Russian city of Volgograd on Monday, killing at least five people and injuring 17 others, officials said.

The blast was caused by “an unspecified explosive device,” the National Anti-Terrorism Committee said in a statement.

There was no immediate information about who might have carried out the bombing or why. The anti-terrorism agency, which is part of the Federal Security Service, said investigators were on the scene.

A total of 40 people were on the city bus at the time of the explosion, said Irina Gogolyeva, a spokeswoman for the Emergency Situations Ministry. She said at least five died and 17 were injured.

Many of the injured were hospitalized in serious condition, the state news agency ITAR-Tass reported.

Top Iranian Generals Warn America of Terrorism

BRONZEYE COMMENT: ok, when you take away the feeling that you are listening to a street crazy, it’s actually worth reading as there are some valid security points; such as the arming of Al Qaeda. At the very least it is always a valuable lesson to learn how the mind of the competition works. COMMENT ENDS!/entry/top-iranian-generals-warn-america-of-terrorism,5264a36fda27f5d9d03d2cb0/2

MI6 demands more spies in Afghanistan to fight terrorism

BRONZEYE COMMENT: the various intelligence services have potentially missed a huge opportunity in Afghanistan as they did in Iraq by not using the depth and geographic spread of some of the commercial companies operating there on a day-to-day basis. Many companies collect information on a ‘Force Protection’ basis as they have to live and operate in potentially hostile environments without the benefit of military support. There is a lot of actionable information available in Afghanistan but the intelligence services were only concentrating on a small section and maybe they have left it too late to start? COMMENT ENDS

MI6 demands more spies in Afghanistan to fight terrorism
Security service calling for reinforcements from other agencies amid fears country will become ‘intelligence vacuum’ when British troops withdraw
The Telegraph
MI6 is calling for reinforcements in Afghanistan amid fears that the country will become an “intelligence vacuum” where terrorists will pose an increased threat to Britain, The Telegraph has learnt.
The Secret Intelligence Service is appealing for extra staff from other intelligence agencies amid growing concern about a terrorist threat from Afghanistan after British troops withdraw next year, intelligence sources have said.
David Cameron has committed to withdrawing troops by December next year, leaving Afghan government forces in charge of securing the country against Taliban insurgents and extremist groups.
Ministers insist that the Afghan forces are up to the task, but Whitehall sources say that intelligence agencies are increasingly concerned that the country could again become a viable base for international terrorists after Nato forces withdraw.
Senior officials are discussing a plan to second members of Defence Intelligence (DI), the Ministry of Defence’s own agency, to MI6.

The Telegraph understands that the concerns are being raised by the security services at the highest levels of Whitehall. The National Security Council is expected to discuss post-2014 Afghanistan before the end of the year. Britain’s justification for joining the war in Afghanistan in 2001 was to cut the threat posed from within the country after the September 11 terror attacks on the United States.
A well-placed source said that Britain’s agencies were already “very stretched” and focused on potential threats from Yemen and Somalia, warning that al-Qaeda could seek to exploit the lack of attention on Afghanistan.
The source described Afghanistan as “the weakest link” in Britain’s foreign intelligence coverage. “We have been heavily reliant on defence intelligence,” the source said. “When the Army goes, we will have a big gap in our intelligence capability.”
The smallest of Britain’s intelligence agencies, DI specialises in “early warning” analyses of emerging threats, and has done extensive work on Afghanistan.
Attaching DI staff to MI6 would help “make sure that there is a continuance of the ongoing understanding of what’s going on on the ground”, the source said.
During a visit to Afghanistan earlier this year, David Cameron said Britain had paid a “high price” for involvement in the war and that it was time for troops to return home.
About 100 British soldiers are expected to remain to train Afghan officers at a military academy known as “Sandhurst in the sands”, and Britain has also pledged financial support. But senior military sources have suggested troops may need to remain until 2020 to help fight the Taliban.
Hopes for a secure legacy rest on the outcome of elections in April, when President Hamid Karzai stands down. A diplomatic source indicated that the Afghan constitution may have to be amended to curb presidential power.
A UK Government spokesman said: “Our action in Afghanistan has substantially reduced the terrorist threat to the UK from this region.”

Leaked findings blame Kenyan security failures for Westgate siege

Leaked findings blame Kenyan security failures for Westgate siege
The Western intelligence report warns of further attacks from al-Shabaab across the region
By KIM SENGUPTA, The Independent.
Sunday 20 October 2013
Intelligence failures, weaknesses in anti-terrorism laws, corruption, excesses and rivalry among police and army units, created the conditions for the Nairobi shopping-mall siege to take place, according to a leaked Western security report.
There was a “high degree of likelihood”, it also maintained, that al-Shabaab, the Somali Islamist group behind the siege in the Kenyan capital last month, would carry out attacks in other countries in the region.
Dozens of FBI officers arrived in Kenya following the Westgate siege to help with the investigation. Based on information received from the US administration, Uganda has just raised its threat-alert level for possible attacks.
Although Islamists from abroad may have been involved in planning the attack, Kenyan nationals also have extensive links with al-Shabaab and play key roles in attacks in the country and elsewhere, the assessment says.
The report, seen by The Independent, was compiled by one of the security agencies of a Western power with military presence in the region.
Samantha Lewthwaite, the British jihadist known as the “White Widow”, has been the subject of huge publicity, but intelligence analysts maintain she is of little more than “symbolic” and “propaganda” value to Islamist terrorists. They said there was little credible evidence she has meaningful knowledge or experience of operations.
The analysts noted that there had been several warnings about a possible attack in Nairobi, going back to the beginning of the year. They point out that the Kenyan media had revealed that security forces were at the shopping complex just 24 hours before the assault, but had failed to discover the weapons stashed in a store by the insurgents. The Israeli government had also voiced concern over a possible atrocity during that period, a Jewish holiday, in Kenya, but, the report says, its focus was on the Lebanese Shia group Hezbollah.
The document states “the current reviews being carried out should show” why the leads were not properly followed up. It adds, however, that “the veracity and provenance of some of the material was of a variable nature” and “confusingly sourced”.
The Kenyan authorities had initially stated that up to a dozen people carried out the Westgate attack, with witnesses claiming a woman was one of them, leading to speculation that it was Lewthwaite, who had been married to Germaine Lindsay, one of those who had carried out the 7/7 London suicide bombings. The analysts who compiled the report say there was no evidence that she was present at the scene.
More recently, some Kenyan officials had changed the number involved in the armed attack to no more than four. Western analysts who compiled the dossier say the figure is too low, and accounts at the time that some of the group fled pretending to be civilians are supported by testimonies as well as other means gathered subsequently.
Foreign jihadists from up to half a dozen countries were said to have been involved in the Westgate attack. This weekend, it was revealed that a Norwegian national born in Somalia, Hassan Abdi Dhuhulow, may be one of the two bodies which have been discovered under the collapsed mall.
The report stresses that there has been extensive Kenyan involvement with al-Shabaab, with around 300 of the country’s nationals fighting in the organisation’s ranks. Two Kenyans, Hussein Hassan Agade and Idris Magondu, were involved in suicide bombings of football fans watching the World Cup final on television in the Ugandan capital, Kampala, in 2010.
One of those sought in a failed raid by US Navy Seals in the Somali town of Baraawe following the Westlands siege was Mohamed Abdikadir “Ikrima” Mohamed, a Kenyan who is accused of heading several terrorist plots. “Ikrima” had spent some time in Norway and is believed to have played a part in recruiting from the Somali diaspora in Western Europe.
Heavy-handed actions by Kenyan security forces had driven some young Kenyan Muslims towards militancy, with the issue exploited by Islamists.
Concern about abuse has also stymied the bringing-in of tougher anti-terrorist legislation. A number of prosecutions, including those of extremist preachers, through the courts have failed down the years.
Corruption among mid- and junior-level local officials had enabled militant groups to obtain passports, permits and passes. The dossier states that senior Kenyan officials acknowledge the extent of the problem.
A joint committee of Kenya’s National Assembly has dismissed claims that members of security forces stole money and looted from the mall during the siege after, it said, it had carried out an investigation.
The security forces’ command and control also needed a thorough review in the light of Westgate, the document says. There were problems with communications, it says, and notes complaints made by Kenyan officials of divisive rivalry. One example was the police’s relatively well-trained General Service Unit being sidelined when the army moved in and there was not adequate exchange of information. The analysts accept, however, that such problems among differing agencies have occurred during urban emergencies in a number of states, including those in the West.